This is a blog about music, photography, history, and culture.
These are photographs from my collection that tell a story about lost time and forgotten music.

Mike Brubaker
{ Click on the image to expand the photo }

A Birdseye View of a Girls Orchestra

13 January 2017

They say two is company, three's a crowd.
And that applies to double bass players
when there are only two instruments to share.
On the other hand,
bass drummers
often do the job of two
by doubling up on cymbals,
with half a pair fixed onto the top of the drum.

Cellists usually come in pairs,
though some like to hide
behind snare drummers.
Violinists always seem to come in gangs.

An orchestra should have
a generous number of strings
but really needs only one oboe.
(back row, second from left)
Having two trombones is okay,
but five clarinets is a bit excessive.

Three cornets
and a melophone
is about right.
Although a single flutist is apt to get lost
in the sound of such a large group.

And with 41 musicians,
all young ladies,
this is definitely a very large orchestra.

The Orchestra
of the Iowa State Industrial School for Girls
Mitchellville, IA

Reichard the Druggist (photographer)

Each girl wears a nearly identical dress, with hair done up in a similar style and held with a large bow. But there are few real smiles on their faces. Several have what I would describe as scowls, even though the sun is not in their eyes. Their unhappy demeanor is not typical of a school orchestra, because this was not a typical school. The Iowa State Industrial School for Girls was a place of incarceration, a reformatory for "wayward", "unfortunate", and "incorrigible" girls. This state institution was established in 1889 as a spinoff from the Iowa reformatory for boys. Girls, ages 10 to 18, who had run foul of the law, and often were without one or both parents, were made wards of the state and sent to this school for correctional education and vocational training. Mitchellville, IA is a small town near Des Moines, just below the center of the state, and in 1900 it had a population of 768. About 220 were young female inmates at the State Industrial School for Girls.  

In 1899 the girls at the school protested over what they considered bad conditions by going on a destructive rampage of school property, mainly shattering glass and china. At the time a new superintendent had just joined the school. His name was F. P. Fitzgerald, a man who had already earned respect for his work managing the State Industrial School for Boys in Eldora, IA. After the rioters were placed under control, Fitzgerald noticed that the girls had protected the pianos in the buildings from damage by wrapping them in quilts and mattresses. As an educator who was also a trained musician and composer, he recognized this desire for music and cleverly set about developing a music program for his young charges. He arranged to purchase music and instruments, and hire a female music teacher. Within a year, the girls orchestra at the Mitchellville Industrial School, with F. P. Fitzgerald conducting, were performing concerts for the public. The discontent and agitation within the institution diminished and the girls began to appreciate Fitzgerald's management.

The postcard was sent
from Farrar, in Polk County, Iowa
on Aug. 21, 1908 to
Mr. Chas Bailey

Dear Brother, I thought
I would write and let you
know what a great mistake
you made and how far you
are behind the times.
O.S. is of the past not
yet but soon.  if you
have any tears pleas(sic) shed
a few for me as mine
are all gone.
Your Loving Sister

Please send them by
return mail.
Mandie Bailey
8 20 08

I've been unable to determine if Mandie Bailey was an inmate at the school, much less that she was a member of the girls orchestra. But her sad enigmatic note, playing on her brother's sympathy, seems the sort that an unfortunate girl might write.

All correspondence at the school was limited for outgoing mail and subject to censorship. The girls, some of whom were illiterate, had regular classes in basic education and also instruction at trades suitable for women like cooking and sewing. In 1907 there were 241 inmates, of which 17 were African-American. At eighteen a girl was deemed an adult and released, but Superintendent Fitzgerald argued, unsuccessfully, that some girls should be allowed to extend their "stay" in order to complete their education.

His music program proved very popular and no notable protest events occurred after it was begun. The orchestra soon had over 40 musicians and a second lower level orchestra was started. The girls played for school dances (though without boys), and even gave run-out concerts for public events.  F. P. Fitzgerald considered himself a composer, and published critiques in Iowa newspapers on the importance of American music in preference to European music. In May 1905, the girls orchestra and choir performed a cantata, written and composed by F. P. Fitzgerald, entitled "The Frolic of the Fairies". That was followed in 1907 by his opera called "The Sorceress" which had "forty-five solos, choruses, and scenic music."  

Some time around 1908-09, a photographer,
perhaps Mr. Reichard the druggist,
tied a camera to a balloon
and took a picture of the school
from an unusual perspective.

Birdseye View
State Industrial School for Girls
Mitchellville, IA

From the altitude of a pigeon, the school is situated on level prairie farmland with only a scattering of trees. The large buildings set around a center quad look very scholastic, even handsome. The grounds show none of the usual prison accoutrements like walls or fences. It's a real photo postcard that surely was admired as a wonder of photography when it first went on display at the Mitchellville drugstore. My guess is that a camera was fixed onto a simple hydrogen balloon, though a kite might be another possibility, with the shutter set off by a long string.  It was still too early in the 20th century to be attached to an airplane.

The postcard was mailed
on SEP 22, 1909 to
Mrs I  D Beeman
Conrad, Ia.

If we move in closer to the buildings,
could we see where the photo
of the girls orchestra was taken? 

These building are too plain.
More like dormitories or classrooms.

This one looks too ornate,
and the windows are not the same.

Again this one is too plain
and the little house on the left
is made of wooden clapboard not brick.

Let's look at the windows of the building behind the orchestra.

I think they are leaded stained glass windows
placed close together in a group of three. 

That's not a typical fenestration style
for a security institution like this.
So I went on the hunt for more history
on the Mitchellville Industrial School for Girls

I found it on a 1914 Iowa state map.

Detail 1914 Map of Mitchellville, Iowa

The survey map shows the grounds of the State of Iowa Girl's Industrial School in Mitchellville with each building labeled. In order of my cutouts, Dormitory No. 1 and behind the Laundry Hospital Storage; the Office and Supt. Residence; and the Dormitory No. 2. But at the northeast corner, not visible in the aerial photo, is a Chapel, a building probably large enough for 240 young girls and designed to inspire moral virtues with stained glass light. It was also likely a building suitable for an orchestra to give concerts. That's where I think the orchestra posed. On the map I've marked a red dot for that view and a blue arrow for the balloon camera.

In 1909, Superintendent F. P. Fitzgerald was falsely accused of taken liberties with his female charges. In our time it might be characterized as mildly inappropriate touching and the allegations were never proven. Nonetheless Fitzgerald resigned and left Mitchellville to run his son's confectionery shop in Idaho. In July 1909 he was replaced by a woman, Miss Hattie Garrison. She was a decidedly different school administrator. 

Only a few months into managing a difficult bunch of girls, Miss Garrison was confronted with riots and accusations of abuse. In March 1910 Twenty-five girls "escaped" from the school and walked over 16 miles to the big city of Des Moines. After they were returned by police, a near riot ensued. Eight girls were arrested and sent to county jail for a few days. They showed no remorse.

Instead they reported on whippings with a rubber hose that they received from Miss Garrison. They complained of her severe restriction on privileges and activities, one of which was a drastic reduction of the orchestra and an elimination of dancing. Miss Garrison believed that music and dancing led the girls to improper behavior after they were released. She also didn't care for popular music like ragtime and permitted the girls to play only church hymns and songs.

The story made the pages of several Iowa newspapers. A conflict arose between Superintendent Garrison and the chairman of the state control board. The governor became entangled. Words were said, witnesses called, sparks flew, dirt was flung, and lawyers got involved. It was not pretty. 

Miss Garrison was exonerated but by April 1911 she resigned from what was clearly a demanding and thankless job. She was replaced by another woman. The girls orchestra never regained it's potential for reform.

In March 1910, the Des Moines Register printed a letter from an anonymous ex-inmate entitled Mitchellville From the Girls' Side. The writer takes strong exception to Miss Garrison's argument that learning music might lead girls "into the gay life". She concludes by saying she took piano and vocal lessons while at the school and is now married with a baby. "Music never led me astray." 

Des Moines Register
22 March 1910

These were not ordinary children. They were troubled young girls. The victims of poverty and abuse, broken homes, poor neighborhoods, and isolated rural communities. Many had limited or no education. A number of girls undoubtedly came from immigrant families with few resources to help them in mid-west America. These girls knew what a "hard scrabble life" meant. The time they served inside a reform school was difficult and not without heartbreak.

But music made it better.

* * *

Today the Girls Industrial School property in Mitchellville is the site of the Iowa Correctional Institution for Women. It is a minimum/medium security facility with a staff of 190. It can house 510 female inmates. Surrounded by heavy barbed wire fences, from Google Maps satellite view it doesn't resemble the 1909 birds-eye view in any way. As far as I can tell the old buildings including the chapel are long gone. 

I doubt that this 2017 generation of Iowa female inmates
has as lovely an orchestra as the one in 1908. 

Iowa Correctional Institution for Women
Mitchellville, Iowa

This is my contribution to Sepia Saturday
where everyone is always on the look out.

The Circus Side Show Trombone

07 January 2017

Some of my favorite musician stories come from simple photo postcards. This is one of them. A bandsman stands with his trombone under his arm, his instrument almost lost in the faded low contrast print. His photo processes two interesting qualities that attract our attention. The first is that the man stands in front of an ornately carved and painted backdrop. The second aspect is that this trombonist is an African-American musician.

The full postcard shows that the backdrop is a wagon decorated with carvings of two angels cavorting over a circular floral medallion. It resembles an old circus wagon, so perhaps this was a musician in a circus band.

The photo also had embossed logo in the lower left corner, Campbell's Photo Art, and a print negative number, 225-B at the bottom. Next to the trombone player is a name in large letters:

H. Langford

It looked like a photographer's hallmark but it did not match the smaller logo. Could it be the name of the bandsman?


On the back of the postcard was the answer.
It was signed
and dated with an address.

yours truly
H. Langford

1155 Aubert
St. Louis, Mo.

To my friend
Happy – 1944

The greeting marked this photo for the 1944 new year's holiday. It was probably taken sometime in 1943 and included with a Christmas card or letter.

But these clues did not reveal a better identification and the story behind this musician remained hidden.

Until I saw this postcard for sale on eBay.

A circus wagon with very distinctive angels.

This circa 1965-66 color postcard was mailed from the Baraboo, WI, the home of the Circus World Museum. The caption describes the Columbia Bandwagon, built in 1897 for the Barnum & Bailey Greatest Show on Earth.  It remained in service until the early 1950s when it was donated by John M. Kelley, the museum founder.

And with a tax deductible contribution, you too could become an Honorary Member in the Professional Elephant Trainers Association which would entitle you to "shovel privileges with the better elephant herds" in the United States.

A comparison with the carving behind the trombonist shows that he is standing in front of the same Columbia bandwagon. The center medallion is revealed as a music lyre. The only difference is that the angels on the restored museum bandwagon are covered in gold leaf while the figures are painted different colors on the 1944 wagon.    

Baraboo, Wisconsin was chosen as the home of the Circus World museum, because it was the hometown of the Ringling Brothers, who formed the famed Ringling Brothers Circus in 1884. After various mergers it became the largest combined circus company in the world, the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus.

With this new clue, I searched for a connection between the name Langford and the Ringling Bros. Barnum & Bailey Circus. I found it on a fantastic website devoted to circus fans, the Circus Historical Society, which has a fascinating collection of circus route books. These trade publications contain every detail about the touring season of a traveling circus. There are names of every circus employee, from tight rope walkers to roustabouts. There is a list of each city on the circus tour and the number of shows. Most circuses started the year in April and continued with at least one performance every day until mid-November. The route books proudly list statistics from tickets sold to miles traveled.

In the CHS archives was a transcription of the roster from the 1946 route book of the Ringling Bros. Barnum & Bailey Circus. One page listed the members of the Big Show Band, which had 29 musicians with Merle Evans, conductor, but no one named Langford. Below that came the performers in the circus Side Show, which had a band too. There were 14 musicians in Arthur A. Wright's Band and Minstrels.

One of them was Harvey Lankford, 1st Trombone.

1946 Ringling Bros Barnum & Bailey
Circus Route Book

In the 1940s, black Americans, South and North, lived within a society divided by segregated color lines. It forced people to follow strict rules of public and private behavior. For traveling circus entertainers, this meant that white musicians in the big top did not share a bandstand with black musicians. The place for black musicians was in the Side Show with the Armless and Legless Girl, the Giant and Giantess, the Tattooed Strong Man, the Comedy Juggler, the Champion Sword Swallower, and the Fire Proof Man. Most black entertainers probably considered it a good job, but the opportunity for advancement was still restricted to only those with an acceptable complexion. 

I felt certain that I had found the right name, and after more research I determined that H. Langford and Harvey Lankford were likely the same man, a musician from St. Louis with a very musical background.

St Louis, MO Argus
19 February 1915

According to his 1918 draft card, Harvey McKinley Labkford was born in 1900 and came from St. Louis, MO. In fact according to the 1900 Census his birthday was a year earlier in 1899.  He was the son of Philip Benjamin Lankford who listed his occupation as Musician in 1900 and Music Teacher Brass Band in 1910. He would pass on musical skills to Harvey and two older sons. By 1915 he  was director of the St Louis Odd Fellows Band, which gave a concert where 16 year old Master Harvey Lankford played a solo on trombone, "Why did you make me care." by Alfred Solman.

The music on that concert, with various Germanic overtures, waltzes, and polkas, was similar to the program of most American brass bands of the era. But this was the decade when the popular ragtime style began to evolve into snappier rhythms and tunes. Harvey Lankford was one of the African-American musicians who helped transform the stuffy staid forms of European centered music into a fresh vibrant style called American Jazz.

_ _ _

Baton Rouge Advocate
03 October 1931

By 1931, Harvey Lankford was a bandleader whose ensemble, the Synco-High Hatters played on one of the excursion steamboats running  up and down the Mississippi River. On one trip they even had the dubious pleasure of entertaining the Daughter of the Confederacy. It was also the age of radio, and in 1933, people could tune into radio station KMOX, broadcasting from St. Louis, to hear Harvey Lankford's Orchestra. Lankford played trombone in other bands too and appeared on a few early recordings. As I began to piece together his career as a professional musician, it became clear that he was one of the unsung pioneers of American jazz culture. Maybe not so much an innovator, but instead a working musician following the rapidly changing fashions in American popular music.

A lot of Langford/Lankford's personal history that I uncovered from various archives was confirmed by a great website devoted to early American jazz, . The site has compiled a large number of notable jazz musicians' WW1 draft cards and presents them with short biographies. Harvey Lankford's name along with his 1918 draft card is listed as one of the bandleaders. The bio says he worked with the "Barnum & Bailey" circus. But in the years 1946-48, not for 1944.

My trombone player's connection with this particular circus was an important detail because if  H. Langford/Lankford was indeed working with the Ringling Bros. Barnum & Bailey Circus in 1944, he might have been present at the great Hartford circus fire. This horrible tragedy occurred during an afternoon performance of the Ringling Bros. Barnum & Bailey Circus. The gigantic canvas tent, which could seat 9,000, caught fire just as the Great Wallendas High Wire act was beginning. Supposedly it was spotted by Merle Evans, the leader of the Big Show Band, who quickly responded by directing the band to play "The Stars and Stripes Forever", the traditional signal of distress for circus folk. However within seconds the flames, fueled by the canvas's paraffin waterproofing, rushed up the canvas sidewalls into the big top. The people below had only about 8 minutes to flee before the tent collapsed in a terrible conflagration. At least 167 people perished and over 700 were injured in the fire.

Was Harvey a witness to this terrible event? My detective instinct said something was missing. I needed to dig some more.

The Billboard
24 April 1954

A search for the Columbia Bandwagon brought a different perspective. Who would expect that a horse drawn wooden wagon from the 1890s would be preserved as a cherished relic of circus life. But in April 1954, The Billboard, the news magazine of the entertainment world, reported that the Columbia Bandwagon had been moved to Baraboo, Wis. by John M. Kelly, its new owner, and the same man who had plans to establish a circus museum. Though originally built for the Ringling Bros. Circus the  bandwagon had formerly been a part of the Cole Bros. Circus.

The Circus Historical Society now has a subsidiary website devoted to the colorful wagons that were once part of every circus parade. There is a page devoted the Columbia Bandwagon which has wonderful photos of the vehicle throughout its service life. Originally used in the 1900s by the Adam Forepaugh and Sells Bros. Circus, in the 1920s it was sold to the Christy Bros. Circus and then in the 30's to the Cole Bros. Circus where it was converted into a ticket wagon. (There are an inordinate number of brothers in circus history!) In 1939 it was no longer used in the parades and was retired to the Cole Bors. winter quarters. But in 1941 the Columbia bandwagon was given a new coat of paint and brought back for the Cole Bros. Circus tour. Photos on the website exactly match the color scheme of the carvings displayed behind my trombonist. In 1943-44 Harvey Lankford was not playing in the side show of the Ringling Bros. Barnum & Bailey Circus. He was in the Cole Bros. Circus Side Show.
_ _ _

The Circus Historical Society has a copy of the 1942 Cole Bros Circus Route Book. On the page devoted to the Side Show performers is a roster of the P. G. Lowery Band with Harvey Lankford as one of the twelve musicians.

1942 Cole Bros Circus Route Book

Though the connection with the Hartford circus fire might make a more dramatic story, this relationship with P. G. Lowery was more significant for music history. Perry George Lowery (1869-1942) was a celebrated African-American cornet player, composer, and band director. He started playing music in the age of traveling minstrel shows. Through talent and dedicated hard work, Lowery developed a distinctive style that made him one of the few successful African-American showmen at the turn of the 19th century. He was admired by many musicians, white and black, including the great cornetist and so-called father of the blues, W. C. Handy (1873-1958). Adapting his music to ragtime, blues and then jazz, Lowery helped change popular culture while at the same time providing opportunities for hundreds of black musicians like Harvey Lankford.

During his career P. G. Lowery played for most of the great circus productions including both the Ringling Bros. Barnum & Bailey show and the Cole Bros. Circus. The 1942 tour was to be his last as he succumbed to health problems, dying at his home in Cleveland on December 15, 1942. For more history on this great musician, I highly recommend a terrific biography: Showman: The Life and Music of Perry George Lowery by Clifford Edward Watkins, Univ. Press of Mississippi, 2003. Unfortunately Wikipedia has no entry for P. G. Lowery, who deserves more recognition for his contributions to American culture. 

Harvey Lankford's name appears in Watkins book. On that last circus tour when Lowery was forced to be absent due to illness, Lankford was the assistant band leader. It seems very likely that he continued as leader of the side show band in the 1943 season when he was photographed in front of the Cole Bros. Columbia band/ticket wagon. The photographer's inclusion of his name, even misspelled, would be very appropriate for a souvenir postcard. 

The Billboard
24 April 1954

When Lankford moved over to the Ringling Bros. Barnum & Bailey Circus in 1946 he played with another alumni of P. G. Lowery's band, Arthur A. Wright who was also a great cornet soloist and band leader. Lankford's name is listed in the  1946, 1947, and 1948 season route books. In 1950 he was reported in Billboard magazine as playing in the side show band of the Biller Bros. Circus.

By a strange coincidence in the same 1954 edition of The Billboard that reported on the movement of the Columbia Bandwagon, there was a long list of the performers and personnel on the King Bros. Circus tour. One of the musicians in Teddy Parker's minstrel band was Howard Langford, trombone. I feel certain that this must be Harvey Lankford, who surely endured a life of misspelled names. 

_ _ _

In 1944 the Cole Bros. Circus traveled 14,271 miles from April 20 to November 12 playing nearly 400 shows in over 150 cities and towns in 27 states. During that same wartime season the Dailey Bros. Circus logged 13,919 miles; the Baily Bros.Circus made 10,262; the Ringling Bros. Barnum & Baily did 8,846; and the Clyde Beatty Circus managed 7,184 miles. Each circus employed thousands of clowns, acrobats, cooks, trapeze artists, animal wranglers, canvas men, wagon drivers, and musicians. Every day began with setting up the big top tent in a new field. Every night ended with folding it all up and loading it onto a train.  

Evidently Lankford was getting tired of a life on the road with the circus. In the mid-1950s he moved to New York City and settled down, limiting his performances to playing in small club bands. I suspect he had a lot of friends. He died in Manhattan on January 14, 1969.


In 1925 Lankford was a member of
Bennie Washington's Six Aces,
which recorded "Compton Avenue Blues"
in St. Louis for Okeh Records.
YouTube let's us
hear Harvey Lankford in his prime
when he takes a solo at 1:25.



The side show performers
may never have enjoyed
the spotlight in the main ring,
but it was always a very popular part
of the circus spectacle.
Another YouTube video
gives us a glimpse of the 1948
Ringling Bros. Barnum & Bailey Circus Side Show.
The minstrel band appears briefly at the start about 0:06.
Was Harvey Lankford there too?



This is my contribution to Sepia Saturday
where every pcture tells a story.

Music on Skis

20 December 2016

Zum Neuen Jahre
herzliche Glückwünsche!

To the New Year
hearty congratulations!

This charming illustration
of a horse pulling
a small band
of musicians on skis
comes from a vintage Swiss postcard.

It was posted
on 6 January 1938
and addressed
to Herrn Joh. Jos. Zihlmann
of Willisau, a small town
in the Lucerne canton, of Switzerland.
Herrn Zihlmann lived
at the landwirtschaftsschule
which was a vocational school
for agricultural occupations.

Salü Hanssep!
Habe deine Karte mit Freuden
erhalten. Bin immer lustig
u. fidel. Gerne wäre ich
am 3 Nov. in den 2 Kurs(?)
eingetreten, aber die Zeit erlaubte
es mir nicht. Wie lebst
Du immer, hoffentlich. bist  Du
gesund und fröhlich.
Viel Glück im neuen Jahr wünscht Du.
Alois Wechsler

Salut Hannseep!
Got your card with pleasure.
I am always funny and jolly.
I would be happy
on 3rd Nov. when the 2nd course
occurred but time
did not allow me.
Hopefully you always live
healthy and happy.
I wish you Good luck in the new year.
Alois Wechsler

{My thanks for any offers of better translations of Schweizerdeutsch}

The horse pictured on the card
looks to be stout enough
to pull three musical skiers
even while carrying a trumpeter.

 But horses come in different sizes
and even small ones
can trot pretty fast
through the snow.
Here is a thrilling video
a sport known as skijoring,that demonstrates what it's like
to ski behind smaller,
but still very enthusiastic horses.
However the two skiers
are not playing an accordion
at the same time.



And for a special Swiss treat,
though without skis,
here is a video from August 2013
when 508 alphorn players
assembled on the Gornergrat ridge
to break the world record
for the largest alphorn group performance.



Click this link to hear
a more complete concert.

On the whole,
I think massed alphorns
are to be preferred
over massed accordions.
But that's just my opinion.

I wish everyone
much joy and happiness
in 2017!

This is my contribution to Sepia Saturday
which celebrates the best photos of the Holiday Season!

The Snowman

09 December 2016

Fresh snowfall
is a timeless universal wonder.
Its sculptural and architectural qualities
surely stimulated prehistoric man
to roll balls of soft snow
into a giant pile.
Inspiring a kind of test statue
for the ancient megaliths
that celebrated the dark winter solstice.
 This monstrous snowman
probably lasted until the spring thaw.

Such a fierce man of snow
required a fanfare from the band.

It's the New Year!

Prosit Neujahr!

The artist's intention may have been jolly,
but this formidable snowman
seems chilling to me,
and not in a cold way.
His icy grin conveys foreboding,
dread, even menace.

And why the man in the lower corner
is cavorting with a sheep
must remain a mystery.

This postcard was sent from
Wien, Austria on 31 XII 1915.
It was the second winter of the Great War.
The writer, Theresia Božek, addressed it
to Wohlgeb. Frau Mize Zpiser(?)
of Bielitz, Schlesien,
a town which was then in Austria
but is now known as Bielsko, Poland.
The honorific stands for Wohlgeboren - Well born.
Which I believe is a mark of minor royalty or upper class.

The stamp on the postcard is of the Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I (1830-1916). The postmark date shows 31 XII 1(5) with another penciled date of 2/I.1916.  The old Kaiser would not see another new year as he died on November 21, 1916 at the age of 86. Throughout his long reign, Franz Joseph remained a mostly aloof but benevolent figure to the people of his vast empire. Nonetheless his decision to seek retribution from Serbia for the assassination of his nephew Archduke Franz Ferdinand was the spark that started the Great War of 1914-18. 

Physically he was hardly a menacing figure. But when his visage was chiseled into white marble, his bald pate, big ears, and bristly muttonchops do make him resemble a snowman. A snowman with medals instead of lumps of coal.

Bust of Kaiser Franz Joseph I.
2 December 1848 – 21 November 1916
Source: Wikimedia

For something more cheerful, watch this exceptional restored silent film which is accompanied by spirited march music. It begins with Kaiser Franz Joseph walking down a street with an entourage of men, all dressed in wonderful uniforms. Note the variety of hat feathers and plumes. In the middle is a charming group of schoolgirls doing a kind of precision march/dance, and I think they are also singing. Then the Kaiser reviews some cadets and rides in a carriage. There is a brass band at about 3:00. I believe the film was taken in 1910, a few years before the war, on the occasion former President Theodore Roosevelt's tour of Europe. However, the president is not in the film.

It looks better when expanded to full screen.

* * *

* * *

This is my contribution to Sepia Saturday
where Snowwomen always get equal time.


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